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Monday, 20 November 2017

Illegal Immigration: Challenges Require Vigilance of the Security Services in Africa

Illegal immigration is one of the major problems facing the world currently, where it comes from southern African countries to the north of Europe through the North African countries, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco.
Observers believe that migration is one of the most complex human phenomena, because of the multiplicity of areas of its influence, especially with the steady increase in the number of migrants across the world, and confirm that the United Nations indicates that there are at least 200 million migrants in the world, a number that is likely to rise due to the presence of an expelling environment that encourages migration with the sharp increase in income disparities between countries.
In recent years, illegal immigration has become a major challenge, not only in the countries that export or receive migrants, but also in the countries that are located in the main roads of international migration.
Observers confirm that the increase in illegal immigration and the complexity of the conditions of illegal immigrants, put many transit countries of the problems of a new type related to the location of these countries of the international equation for migration, and the imbalance in the rates of access to their people of equal opportunities for legal migration, in the absence of a comprehensive vision that accommodates these emergency situations according to a participatory vision at an international level, which means transit countries as an essential part of the development and migration equations, thus strengthening the positive interaction of these countries with the phenomenon of illegal migration.
Perhaps this phenomenon is embodied in the sociology (the Dynamic of Illegal Culture), where the phenomenon is increasing day by day and more complicated because of the overlap of political interests and differences between countries.
In 1994, the international community adopted a migration management plan in Cairo. A number of laws covering rights and the development of an immigration program were adopted that seek to reduce this type of migration by developing levels of cooperation between countries to manage problems related to illegal immigration, but after about a decade and a half of the Cairo conference it became clear that the level of attention to the issue of migration and its management does not correspond to the size of the complexities surrounding this global phenomenon.
This was followed by the adoption what is called, at the international level, the approach of migration and development adopted by the United Nations as an attempt to make developing countries benefit from migrants through remittances, or to enable migrants to acquire advantages, technologies or education for the development of their countries. Another approach was adopted by the European Union.
Migration is one of the most important modern phenomena linked to the development processes of the states in Africa, both in terms of the different effects of this phenomenon on the economies of African countries, and their repercussions negatively and positively on their communities, or in terms of the new reality created by the phenomenon, so there is a need for coordination and cooperation between the countries of the continent, as they are countries that export migration in general.
 Observers say that if the attempt to unify the positions of African countries at the international level in the field of general rules of migration, and the adoption of common policies between them in this area is an urgent need, cooperation between the North African countries and sub-Saharan Africa is more urgent, as the North African region of its five counties locate in the transit area of ??the African migration movement towards Europe, placing a heavy burden on them to deal with illegal immigration, where sub-Saharan Africa is the most important source of it, as well as the transit countries themselves.
Observers say that in an effort to ease the pressure of illegal immigration of workers to Europe coming from Africa, Europe has tried to provide some support and assistance to the African continent, and in this context, the European Union is dealing with the African continent collectively and in a framework of other countries outside the continent, and this shows that Africa does not receive special attention commensurate with its sensitive location.
Observers propose some solutions to stop immigration through the establishment of camps for these illegal immigrants in the transit countries and then their repatriation to their countries of origin and the intensification of security measures to prevent the infiltration of illegal immigrants. These measures include extensive monitoring of maritime crossing points for illegal migration. These deterrent measures proved to be effective across the Straits of Gibraltar, which encouraged their application on the Libyan coast in cooperation with the Libyan authorities, as well as supporting development programs in the source countries to provide employment opportunities for stabilization of migrants in their own countries.
It can be said that most of these measures have been ineffective and are unable to stop the illegal immigration.