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Thursday, 23 November 2017

The Gezira Scheme

We provide these information those who desire to invest in agriculture in Sudan

, the idea is to make investors to imagine the scheme and to see its significance to Sudan national economy. 
The name EL-Gezira, that is “the island” was originally applied to all the Gezira scheme which is the largest, oldest, and most important agricultural and also the largest farm in the world under one management, lying between the Blue Nile and the White Nile, without any defined limit to the south. For practical purpose, now it includes only the triangle lying North of Sennar, Kosti railway, a gross area of some 5 million feddan  The Gezira is a gently sloping plain of black clay soil of about 5 million of feddan lying South of Khartoum between the Blue Nile and White Nile. Rainfall was uncertain and before irrigation only shifting cultivation and nomadic grazing was possible. After an initial pilot scheme for cotton at Tayba, in the heart of the Gezira plain, the Sennar  Dam was constructed on the Blue Nile in 1925.The main Gezira area is about 1.2 million feddans lying adjacent to the blue Nile, and the Managil extension developed between the year 1957/58 and 1962/63 covering on area of about 0.88 million feddan lying to the south west of Gezira scheme
The map in Figure 1 Illustrates the Gezira and Managil irrigated area by groups and blocks. Topography of the Gezira is related to the characteristic of the two rivers. The Blue Nile comes from mountains catchments (Ethiopia plateau) and flows at a relatively steep slope
(1/10,000). The seasonal variation of its discharge ranges is as follows:
In the low season from January to June, the mean total discharge of the main river below Khartoum is some 13.8 Billions of cubic meter
(1 Billions=1,000 million) cubic meters, of which the White Nile contributes 10 Billion and the Blue Nile 3.8 Billion. The Atbra River is dry for practically the whole of this period. From the beginning of July, the main river rises rapidly until the peak of the flood is reached about  the end of August (discharge is 76 Billions, of which 16 Billion came  from the white Nile 48 Billion from the blue Nile and 12 Billion from  the Atbara considering the year as a whole. The surface of soil of the  Gezira with high clay content. Soils are in general very good. The climatic conditions of the Gezira area differ from one zone to another. The annual average rainfall is apparently 400-500 millimeters (mm) in the south, and this average drops gradually towards the North  (average 200-300 mm). Climate differences are also observed in the  average temperature and relative humidity.
Administration: The Gezira and Managil scheme, has been  divided into 18 (eighteen) groups, 10 (ten) in the Gezira and 8 (eight)  in the Managil extension. Each group divided into 7-10 blocks with  block inspector on top of each, assisted by a number of inspectors.
To facilitate the flow of information from the management to the  farmers, a production council was set up in each block inspector, which  includes some farmers as members. The entomologist, and agricultural extensions, the agricultural engineer, the auditor, and accountant inspector are also members in the group council. The function of this council is to discuss and settle all problems facing the agricultural program.