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Sunday, 22 October 2017
 

Surat Al-Maida -5- Medinian –Ayats 120 – Section – Six – Verses 54-66

O’ you who believe! Whoever from amongst you apostates/turns back from his religion (Islam), soon God will bring people whom He will love, and they will love Him; humble towards the believers, stern and mighty towards the disbelievers/ rejecters, fighting in the Way of God, and never afraid of the reproach and blame of the blamers. That is the Grace of God, which He bestows on whom He pleases and wills, and God encompasses all, and He is All-Sufficient for His creatures needs. (54)

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا مَنْ يَرْتَدَّ مِنْكُمْ عَنْ دِينِهِ فَسَوْفَ يَأْتِي اللَّهُ بِقَوْمٍ يُحِبُّهُمْ وَيُحِبُّونَهُ أَذِلَّةٍ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَعِزَّةٍ عَلَى الْكَافِرِينَ يُجَاهِدُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَلَا يَخَافُونَ لَوْمَةَ لَائِمٍ ذَلِكَ فَضْلُ اللَّهِ يُؤْتِيهِ مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَاللَّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ (54)

Verily, your (real) Protector and Helper is God, His Messenger, and the believers; those who establish and perform regular prayers, and give regular alms and Charity and they are bowing down humbly. 55   

إِنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُمْ رَاكِعُونَ (55)

And whosoever turn [for friendship] and takes God, His Messenger, and those who believed as Protectors; verily, it is the Fellowship of God that must certainly triumph. (56)  

وَمَنْ يَتَوَلَّ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَالَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا فَإِنَّ حِزْبَ اللَّهِ هُمُ الْغَالِبُونَ (56)

O’ you who believe! Do not take for friends and protectors those who take your religion for a mockery and fun/sport whether from among those who received the Scriptures before you, or among those who reject Faith and disbelievers, and be pious and fear God if you indeed are true believers /have Faith. (57) 

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا دِينَكُمْ هُزُوًا وَلَعِبًا مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ وَالْكُفَّارَ أَوْلِيَاءَ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ مُؤْمِنِينَ (57)

And when you proclaim your call for prayers, they take (but) as mockery and sport/fun; that is because they are a people without understanding. (58)

وَإِذَا نَادَيْتُمْ إِلَى الصَّلَاةِ اتَّخَذُوهَا هُزُوًا وَلَعِبًا ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ (58)

Say:”O’ people of the Book/Scripture! Do you have (vindictiveness) criticize/disapprove of us for no other reason than that we believe in God, and the revelations which has been sent down to us, and that which came before us; and (perhaps) that most of you are rebellious, dissolute and disobedient. (59)   

قُلْ يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ هَلْ تَنْقِمُونَ مِنَّا إِلَّا أَنْ آَمَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَمَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْنَا وَمَا أُنْزِلَ مِنْ قَبْلُ وَأَنَّ أَكْثَرَكُمْ فَاسِقُونَ (59)

Say (O’ Muhammad-to the people of Scripture): ”Shall I inform you of something much worse than that, regarding the recompense from God; those who incurred the Curse of God and His Wrath, and those of whom (some) He transformed into apes/ monkeys and swine, those who worshipped false gods and Evil, such are worse {many times} in rank, and far more astray from the even Faith and the Right Path”. (60) 

قُلْ هَلْ أُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِشَرٍّ مِنْ ذَلِكَ مَثُوبَةً عِنْدَ اللَّهِ مَنْ لَعَنَهُ اللَّهُ وَغَضِبَ عَلَيْهِ وَجَعَلَ مِنْهُمُ الْقِرَدَةَ وَالْخَنَازِيرَ وَعَبَدَ الطَّاغُوتَ أُولَئِكَ شَرٌّ مَكَانًا وَأَضَلُّ عَنْ سَوَاءِ السَّبِيلِ (60)

When they come to you, they say:”we believe”. But in fact they enter with mind determination/ intention against Faith, and they go out with the same. But God Knows fully all that they do. (61)

وَإِذَا جَاءُوكُمْ قَالُوا آَمَنَّا وَقَدْ دَخَلُوا بِالْكُفْرِ وَهُمْ قَدْ خَرَجُوا بِهِ وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْتُمُونَ (61)

And you see many of them hurrying towards sin and transgression, and their eating of forbidden/ illegal things (bribes and usury). Evil indeed are things they have been doing. (62)

وَتَرَى كَثِيرًا مِنْهُمْ يُسَارِعُونَ فِي الْإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ وَأَكْلِهِمُ السُّحْتَ لَبِئْسَ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ (62)

Why do not the Rabbis and religious learned and doctors of law forbid them from –their habit of- uttering sinful words, and from eating forbidden and illegal things? Evil indeed is that which they have been performing. (63)  

لَوْلَا يَنْهَاهُمُ الرَّبَّانِيُّونَ وَالْأَحْبَارُ عَنْ قَوْلِهِمُ الْإِثْمَ وَأَكْلِهِمُ السُّحْتَ لَبِئْسَ مَا كَانُوا يَصْنَعُونَ (63)

The Jews say:”God’s hand is tied up”. Be their hands tied up and be they accursed for the blasphemy they uttered. Nay both His hands are widely outstretched; He spends of His bounty as He wills/pleases. Verily, the Revelation that has come to you from God increases in most of them their obstinate rebellion, disbelief and blasphemy. We have placed amongst them enmity and hatred till the Day of Resurrection. Every time they kindle the fire of war, God extinguished it; and they ever strive to make mischief on earth. And God does not like the mischief makers. (64)

وَقَالَتِ الْيَهُودُ يَدُ اللَّهِ مَغْلُولَةٌ غُلَّتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَلُعِنُوا بِمَا قَالُوا بَلْ يَدَاهُ مَبْسُوطَتَانِ يُنْفِقُ كَيْفَ يَشَاءُ وَلَيَزِيدَنَّ كَثِيرًا مِنْهُمْ مَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِنْ رَبِّكَ طُغْيَانًا وَكُفْرًا وَأَلْقَيْنَا بَيْنَهُمُ الْعَدَاوَةَ وَالْبَغْضَاءَ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ كُلَّمَا أَوْقَدُوا نَارًا لِلْحَرْبِ أَطْفَأَهَا اللَّهُ وَيَسْعَوْنَ فِي الْأَرْضِ فَسَادًا وَاللَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الْمُفْسِدِينَ (64)

And if only the people of the Book/Scripture (Jews and Christians) had believed {in Muhammad PPBUH} and been pious and righteous, We would indeed have blotted out their iniquities and sins and admitted them to the Gardens of Bliss. (65)

وَلَوْ أَنَّ أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ آَمَنُوا وَاتَّقَوْا لَكَفَّرْنَا عَنْهُمْ سَيِّئَاتِهِمْ وَلَأَدْخَلْنَاهُمْ جَنَّاتِ النَّعِيمِ (65)

And if only they had stood fast by the (Law) Torah, and the Gospel, and all the revelations that was sent down to them from their Lord, they would surely have gotten provision from above them and from underneath their feet. There are from among them people who are on the right course; but many of them follow the course of evil deeds. (66)

وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ أَقَامُوا التَّوْرَاةَ وَالْإِنْجِيلَ وَمَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْهِمْ مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ لَأَكَلُوا مِنْ فَوْقِهِمْ وَمِنْ تَحْتِ أَرْجُلِهِمْ مِنْهُمْ أُمَّةٌ مُقْتَصِدَةٌ وَكَثِيرٌ مِنْهُمْ سَاءَ مَا يَعْمَلُونَ (66)


Hadeeth Sharif: ((How the Adhan=???? – the call to prayer was started; and as stated on verse 58, and also the proclamation of Friday Prayers in Surat Al-Goma’a 62 verse 9.
1/“ Narrated Anas Bin Malik: The people mentioned the fire and the bell {They suggested those signals to indicate the starting of the prayers}, and by that they mentioned the Jews and the Christians; then Bilal was ordered to pronounce the Adhan for the prayer by saying its wordings twice (in doubles), and for the Iqama= ???????  - convocation (the call for the actual standing for the prayers in rows) by saying its wordings once (in singles)-(convocation=Iqama; is pronounced when the people are ready for the prayer)- Saheeh Al-Bukhary.
2/ Verse 66: Narrated Anas Bin Malik: When the news of the arrival of the Prophet [PPBUH] at Al-Medina reached ‘Abdalla bin Salam, he went to the Prophet [PPBUH] to ask him about certain things. He said:”I am going to ask you about three things which only a Prophet can answer: (1) what is the first sign of the Hour? (2) What is the first food which the people of Paradise will eat? (3) How does a child attract the similarity to his father or to his mother?” The Prophet [PPBUH] replied:”Jibrail-Gabriel has just now informed me on that.” Ibn Salam said:”Jibrail-Gabriel is the enemy of the Jews from amongst the angels” The Prophet [PPBUH] said:”as for the first sign of the Hour, it will be a fire that will collect or gather the people from the east to the west. As for the first meal which the people of Paradise will eat, it will be the caudate –extra- lobe of the fish-liver. As for the child; if the man’s discharge precedes the woman’s discharge; the child attracts the similarity to the man, and if the woman’s discharge precedes the man’s, then the child attracts the similarity of the woman.” At this moment ‘Abdullah Bin Salam said:” I testify that La Ilaha Illallah {none has the right to be worshipped but Allah} and that you are the Messenger of Allah”, and added:”O’ Allah’s Messenger! The Jews make such lies so as to make one astonished, so please ask them about me before they know about my conversion to Islam.” The Jews came and the Prophet [PPBUH] said:” what kind of man is ‘Abdullah Bin Salam among you?” They replied: “the best of us and the son of the most superior among.” The Prophet [PPBUH] said:”What would you think if ‘Abdullah bin Salam should embrace Islam?” They said:”May Allah protect him from that.” The Prophet repeated his question and they gave the same answer, then ‘Abdullah came and out to them and said: “I testify that La Ilaha Illallah (none has the right to be worshipped but Allah), and that Muhammad [PPBUH] is the Messenger of Allah!” On this, the Jews said:”He is the most wickedly among us and the sun of the most wickedly among us.” So they degraded him. On this situation ‘Abdullah bin Salam said: “it is this {sort of people} I was afraid of O’ Allah’s Messenger.” Saheeh Al-Bukhary.
COMMENTARY:  
(Verses 54-55-56)- As “most men are rebellious”-v. 52, it is inevitable that there should be apostates even from such a religion of reason and common-sense as Islam. But here is a warning to the Muslim body; that they should not repeat the history of the Jews, and become as self-satisfied or arrogant as to depart from the spirit of God’s teaching. If they do, the loss will be their own. God’s bounty is not confined to one group or section of humanity. He can always raise-up people who will follow the true spirit of Islam. That spirit is defined in two ways; first in general terms; they will love God and God will love them; and secondly, by specific signs; amongst the Brethren, their attitude will be that of humility, but to wrong-doers they will offer no mealy-mouthed compromises; they will always strive and fight for truth and right; they will know no fear, either physical, or that more insidious form, which says:”What will people say if we act thus?” They are too great in mind to be haunted by any such thought. For-as the verse say- their friends are God, His Apostle, and His people, the people who judge rightly, without fear or favor.
(Verses 57-58)- It is not right that we should be intimate association with those to whom religion is either a subject of mockery or at best is nothing but a plaything. They may be amused, or they may have other motives for discouraging you. But your association with them will sap the earnestness of your Faith, and make you cynical an insincere.
(Verse 59)- There is the most biting irony in this and the next verse; “You people of the Book! Do you hate us because we believe in God -and not only our scripture- but yours also? Perhaps you hate us because we obey and you are in rebellion against God! Why hate us? There are worse things than our obedience and our Faith. Shall I tell you some of them? Our test will be: what treatment God meted out to the things I mention. Who were the people who incurred the curse of God? (See Deut. xi. 28 and 15-68: and numerous passages like Hosea viii. 14 and ix l). Who provoked God’s wish? (See numerous passages like Deut. 1, 34; Matt. iii 7). Who forsook God, and worshipped evil? (See Jeremiah, xvi, 11-13). That is your record. Is that is the reason why you hate us!
(Verses 60-61)- For the apes see Surat Al-Bagara 2 verse 65. For men possessed by devils, and the devils being semi into swine, (see Matt. viii, 28-32). Or perhaps both apes and swine are allegorical; those who falsified God’s scriptures became lawless like apes, and those who succumbed to filth, gluttony, or gross living became like swine.
(Verses 62-63)- Eating of things forbidden: may be construed in a literal or a figurative sense. From its juxtaposition with sin and hatred, it is better to construe it in figurative sense, as referring to their fraudulent misappropriations of other people’s property or trust property. “Eating” is also used in verse 66 below in the general sense of enjoyment and happiness.
(Verses 64-65)(A) See verse 13 and Surat AlBagara 2 verse 245, for a “beautiful loan to God”, and Surat Al-Imran 3 verse 181, for the blasphemous taunt, “Then God is poor!” It is another form of the taunt to say, “Then God’s hands are tied up. He is close-fisted. He does not give!” This blasphemy is repudiated. On the contrary, boundless is God’s bounty, and He gives –as it were- with both hands outstretched; a figure of speech for unbounded liberality. (b) Their jealousy- because Al-Mustatafa [PPBUH] is chosen for God’s Message- is so great that it only confirms and strengthens their rebellion and blasphemy. (c) In verse 15, where the eternal warning of the Christian sects, among themselves and against the Jews, is referred to. The reference is to the whole of the People of the Book, Jews and Christians; their internal squabbles and their external disputes, quarrels, and wars. (d) The argument of the whole verse may be thus stated. The Jews blaspheme and mock, and because of their jealousy, the more they are taught, the more obstinate they become in their rebellion. But what good will it does to them? Their selfishness and spite sow quarrels among themselves, which will not be healed till the Day of Judgment. When they stir up wars –especially against the innocent- God’s Mercy is poured down like a flood of water to extinguish them. But their wickedness continues to devise ever new mischief. And God loves not mischief or those who do mischief.
(Verse 66)- The literal translation of the two lines would be: “They would have eaten from above them and from below their feet.” To eat –akala-??? – is a very comprehensive word, and denotes enjoyment generally, physical, social, mental and moral, and spiritual. “To eat what is forbidden” in verses 62-63 referred to taking unlawful profit, from usury or trust funds or in other ways. Here “eating” would seem to mean receiving satisfaction or happiness in ordinary life as well as in the spiritual world. “From above them” may refer to heavenly or spiritual satisfaction, and “from below their feet” to earthly satisfaction. But it is better to take the words as a general idiom, and understand “satisfaction or happiness from every side”.